Table of Content
- Product Specification
- Types of Pipe Fitting
- Available Materials
- Dimension of Pipe
Pipe fittings refer to a variety of fittings used in the fabrication of pipes. An example of a pipe fitting is a union fitting. It has become common to use the terms union, coupler, elbow, etc., rather than pipe fittings.
A pipe fitting connects one pipe to another to extend a run or change the flow direction in a plumbing system. The pipes they connect are available in a variety of sizes, and they combine, divert, or reduce the water supply flow.
Pipe fittings must follow sizing standards. Fittings can serve as transitions between different pipe sizes, or they can have the same opening on both ends.
Many different industries and applications use pipe fittings. Water supply systems, gas lines, oil fields, etc., use them. Various companies have developed these applications over the years – some have been developed by one company for one application, while others have developed solutions for other applications.
In order to reduce pipe leakage, various types of pipe fittings have been developed – these are called pipesets or pipe sets: Blowpipe fittings are used for quick connection between pipes and are usually found on the back side of the pipe. Different types have been developed from older systems and improved during later development. The following fittings are available: Blowpipe fittings are used to connect open-ended pipes.
They have continuous and graduated pinions at the bottom of the threaded section, which extend over a cylinder on the other side of the pipe. Furthermore, any one or more fittings can be easily removed and replaced by simply unscrewing them from their parts and removing them. In addition to being particularly useful when connecting different sizes of pipe, the pinion system can be used with a wide range of sizes, allowing the use of any size pipe.
Fittings like this are particularly popular. An easy-to-use and close-fitting fitting. A series of threaded parts called flanges mount these fittings on both sides of the pipe. There is a keyway on the bottom of the fitting that prevents debris from passing through, and the thread at the top of the flange gets smaller as it goes down. Fittings of this type usually have a 1/4″ diameter but can be used with larger pipes as well. They are an alternative to spigots and use a stopcock on the bottom.
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Specifications for pipe fittings
ASTM A815 / ASME SA815
Seamless Pipe Fittings: 1/2″ – 10″, Welded Pipe Fittings: 1/2″ – 48″
ASME/ANSI B16.9, ASME B16.28, MSS-SP-43
5s, 10s, 40s, 80s, 10, 20, 40, STD, 60, 80, XS, 100, 120, 140, 160, XXS available with NACE MR 01-75
Seamless / Welded / Fabricated
Types of pipe fittings and their purposes:
- Elbows: It Used to change the angle or direction of the pipe run. Turns of 90 degrees and 45 degrees are most common. Sweep describes how fast a fitting makes a transition or changes direction.
- Street Elbows: There are male threads on one end of the pipe fitting and female threads on the other end. It is common to find these in galvanized steel and copper pipes. In tight quarters, they are convenient because they eliminate the need for a nipple.
- Tee Fittings: Shaped like the letter T. Allows for branch lines.
- Couplings: Used to join two straight pieces of pipe of the same diameter.
- Reducers: Used to join pipes of different diameters. Makes a gradual change in diameter.
- Bushings: A pipe fitting’s diameter is reduced. In contrast to reducers, they make a sudden change in diameter and take up little space.
- Unions: Used to join pieces of pipe where pipes cannot be turned or when a piece of equipment may have to be removed for maintenance or replacement.
- Adaptor Fittings: The end of a non-threaded pipe can be changed to male or female threads as needed. Plumbing jobs involving copper and plastic are most commonly performed with this tool.
- Caps: Used to close the end of a dead-end pipe.
- Plugs: Closes an end of a pipe fitting used for inspection or cleaning.
- Nipples: Short lengths of pipe threaded at both ends.
- Wyes: Used primarily to gain inside access to DWV (drain-waste-vent) systems.
- Copper Tubing Fittings: Use compression fittings. Common fittings are couplings, ells, and tees.
There are several ways to secure pipe joints, depending on the material, features, and functions of the pipes and fittings. Methods of connection include:
Push to connect fittings:
For DIY plumbing projects, push-to-connect fittings (also called push-to-fit or click-to-connect) make installation quick and easy. In low-pressure situations, these have a special O-ring and metal teeth to grip and keep a watertight connection. PEX, PVC, and copper pipes can all be used with them in certain situations.
For a tight fit, threaded pipe fittings can be twisted together. Fittings and pipes with female treads have threads on the inside and fit around male connections that have threads on the outside. If we consider a bottle with a twist-off lid, the bottle has male threads and the lid has female threads.
Solder is melted around the seam of brass or copper fittings and pipes to form a permanent, leak-free joint.
A primer and solvent cement are used to affix plastic pipes and fittings with smooth walls.
For tight jointing, these fittings have a threaded body, nut, and sleeve called a “ferrule” to apply compression.
Pipe and fitting are connected after the pipe has been “flamed” with a special tool using flare nuts and cone-shaped fittings.
Using a special tool, a metal ring is tightly squeezed around pipe after the fitting has been installed.
A clamp is tightened around the pipe after the fitting has been inserted.
Materials available for pipe fittings
|Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings||ASTM A403 WP Gr. 304, 304H, 304L, 309, 310, 316, 316L, 316TI, 316H, 317L, 321, 347, 904L|
|Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings||ASTM A234 WPB , WPBW, WPHY 42, WPHY 46, WPHY 52, WPH 60, WPHY 65 & WPHY 70|
|Low-Temperature Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings||ASTM A420 WPL3 , A420WPL6|
|Alloy Steel Pipe Fittings||ASTM / ASME A/SA 234 Gr. WP 1, WP 5, WP 9, WP 11, WP 12, WP 22, WP 91|
|Duplex Steel Pipe Fittings||ASTM A 815, UNS NO S 31803, S 32205, S 32760, S 32750|
|Nickel Alloy Pipe Fittings||*Standards in Pipe Fittings|
Dimensions Chart of pipe fittings
|Pipe Fittings Nominal Size||
Pipe Fittings Outside
Wall Thickness T
(Pipe Fittings Schedule)
|45 Deg. Pipe Fittings LR Centre to Face B||
45 Deg. Pipe Fittings LR
|90 Deg. Pipe Fittings LR Centre to Face A||90 Deg. Pipe Fittings LR Weight||90 Deg. Pipe Fittings SR Centre to Face A||90 Deg. Pipe Fittings SR Weight|
Applications of Pipe Fittings
- Oil and Gas
- Food, Beverage, and Dairy
- Process Instrumentation
- Pulp and Paper
- Marine & dredging
- Road & highway construction
- Ventilation etc.
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