Table of Content
- Types of forged flanges
- special flanges
- Equivalent forged fittings
Flanges connect pipes, valves, pumps, and other equipment. In addition, it provides easy access for cleaning, inspection, or modification. Flanges are usually welded or screwed together. A flanged joint is formed by bolting together two flanges and sealing them with a gasket.
It is possible to make pipe flanges from stainless steel, cast iron, aluminum, brass, bronze, and plastic, but the most commonly used material is forged carbon steel.
Moreover, sure flanges, like fittings and pipes, are internally lined with materials of a completely different quality than the flanges themselves, called “lined flanges.”
Many industries use forged fittings, including petrochemicals, oil, gas, power generation, bulk liquid transportation, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, pulp and paper manufacturing, textiles, etc. Our forged steel flange fittings are made following international standards.
Various steel forged fittings are available from us, including 90o Elbows, 45o Elbows, Tees, Crosses, Couplings, Reducers, Inserts, Caps, Nipples, and Unions. Forged socket weld fittings are available in classes 3000, 6000, and 9000. There are three classes of forged threaded fittings: 2000, 3000, and 6000. Forged Pipe Fittings – Socket Weld & Threaded, Equal Tees & Reducing Tees, 90° & 45° Elbows – Female-Female, Male-Female, Male-Male, Unions, Nipples, Couplings, Plugs.
Forging flanges are used for fabricating steel structures. They can form flanges for pipes, tubes, and fittings. There are a few types of flanges. A pipe flange is a type of flange that is used for the fabrication of steel structures. A pipe, tube, or fitting can be flared or socketed by using it. This is available in “double-acting” and “triple-acting” versions. With a double-acting valve, pressure can be controlled in one direction and released in the other direction.
Forge Flanges are a type of flange that is used for the sealing of gas and liquid pipelines. In addition to having a large surface area, Forge Flanges are also easily welded and repaired, which makes them much more durable than other flanges.
Generally, forge flanges are made from cast iron but can also be made from stainless steel or ductile iron. They are designed to be slightly larger than the pipe diameter, then welded to them. There are also a variety of shapes available for flanges, such as round flats or square corners. Pipe ends are cut square (or have a 90-degree corner) and inserted into the slots on the flanges.
Flanges are used to connect pipes and seal damaged valves and pressure pipe nipples, creating a leak-tight seal that permits high-pressure water to flow through.
The forge flange is a type of flange that is used in forging. It is made from forged steel and is designed to have good heat resistance and withstand high temperatures.
The forging process involves heating metal and shaping it into the desired shape. It is essential for manufacturing car parts, kitchen appliances, aircraft, etc.
Open-die forging involves hammering metal into a die before it cools down, which is the most common type. The die shapes the metal before it cools down into the desired shape. This method requires a high pressurization level, making the process time-consuming, difficult to control, and expensive.
Using Forge Flanges reduces these problems by allowing the metal to be shaped with less pressure. The shape of the flange makes it easier to form metal than a flat surface. To reduce the risk of injuries during the manufacturing process, the length and width of the flange can be adjusted to accommodate different shapes and sizes in metal, making it less likely for sharp edges or protrusions.
- Generally, forged flanges have a lower carbon content than cast iron flanges, so they tend not to rust as easily as cast iron flanges.
- It has an excellent streamlined shape and a compact structure, so the mechanical properties of these flanges are better than those of cast flanges.
- As a result of an incorrect forging process, the grain will be large or uneven, and cracking will occur due to the hardening process. It is important to note that the cost of forged steel flanges is higher than that of casting steel flanges.
- Castings are incompatible with high shear and tensile forces, while forgings are.
- As a result of the internal structure of the forging being uniform, there are no detrimental defects in the casting, such as pores and inclusions, that can cause problems.
What are the Forged Flanges?
Forged flanges are a type of flange that is used to connect pipes, valves, or other equipment in a piping system with one another. A forged steel or other metal alloy is usually used for these devices, and they are designed to withstand high pressure, high temperatures, and other harsh conditions under which they are used.
A forged flange is made through the process known as forging, which involves shaping the metal by applying force to it using a hammer or press to shape it. Consequently, this produces a flange with a dense, uniform grain structure and superior strength compared to flanges that are cast.
Several forged flanges are available, including slip-on, weld neck, threaded, socket weld, blind, and lap joint flanges. It is common for them to be used in oil and gas, petrochemical, and other industrial applications where reliable and durable connections are necessary.
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Types of Forge Flanges
It is essential to consider the strength of the flanged joint when choosing a flange for an application. Used flanges instead of welded connections can be disassembled quickly and efficiently to facilitate maintenance operations. Using flanges for many water distribution systems is necessary because the water pressure is so high that welds or screws would be dangerous to use. For example, when used in pipelines, threaded joints can be subject to heavy tension and compression. Forged flanges manufacturers can quickly adapt the system to different applications by choosing from various flanges and washers available from stock.
Welding Neck Flange
A long tapered hub on the welding neck flange can be welded to a pipe. Typically, this type of flange is used in applications involving high pressure or high/low temperature where fluid flow is unrestricted (the flange bore matches the pipe bore). A WN is shaped like a truncated cone, with a cone angle specified in degrees from vertical when used to align pipe ends or provide a location for a weld bead for pressure-tight joints.
On the other hand, a flap-type flange (“FW”) has a flat hub that can be welded with wire or rolled onto a pipe end by pressing it into position against the pipe surface. A low-pressure and high-temperature joint connection is typically made with this flange. A welding neck flange (“WN”) features a long tapered hub that can be welded to a pipe. The FW is usually soldered, brazed, or welded onto pipe ends.
This flange is typically used in high-pressure and high/low-temperature applications requiring unrestricted fluid flow.
Long Welding Neck
A long weld neck flange extends the neck (tapered hub) and acts as a boring extension. These flanges are commonly used on vessels, columns, and barrels. They are also available for heavy barrels (HB) and equal barrels (E). They are designed for general use. Types of flanges: Tapered hub (long weld neck) flanges extend the neck of barrels, columns, and vessels. Those with a hollow stem (short weld neck) flange are easy to transport and handle, like barrels or columns. They are often used on long weld neck flanges.
A slip-on flange is attached to a pipe or fitting with two fillet welds, one inside and one outside. For a slip-on flange to be connected by a fillet weld, the bore of the flange must be larger than the pipe’s outside diameter. So that the fillet weld can be made, a slip-on flange has a metal cap covering its hole, which is then bolted to a fitting or pipe with two threaded holes.
Weld Neck Vs Slip On Flange
Regarding connector design, slip-on flanged connections are more fragile over time than welding neck flanged connections (under similar service conditions). The following factors seem to explain this:
- Unlike socket weld flanges, welding neck flanges have a tapered hub, which distributes mechanical stress more evenly between the pipe and the flange
- Welding neck joints have only one welding area instead of two; unlike socket weld flanges, welding neck flanges can also be attached to pipes and fittings.
The opposite end has a female thread, generally NPSM, according to ASME B1.20.1, which must be tightened first.
Many types of pipe use male threaded connections; this includes most sizes and types of PVC pipe. These nuts and pipe threads must be compatible with joining them together. Cast iron, CPVC, ABS, and ABS-R pipes have female connections.
Threaded flanges are also mandatory in explosive areas since welding would be hazardous.
Socket Weld Flange
As a result of the gap between the pipe end and the socket shoulder, socket weld flanges are prone to corrosion and are used for pipes with small diameters and high pressures that do not transport highly corrosive fluids. Because socket weld flanges have one fillet weld instead of two, their static strength is the same as slip-on flanges, but their fatigue strength is more excellent.
Lap Joint Flange
Unlike slip-on flanges, lap joint flanges have a radius at the intersection of the flange face and bore to accommodate the flanged portion of the stub end.
Stainless steel or nickel alloy pipelines can be fitted with lap joint flanges, and stub ends at a cost-effective price since the lap joint flange can be made from a lower grade (generally carbon steel) than the stub end (which must match the pipe grade, as it is in contact with the conveyed fluid).
Therefore, this arrangement has two advantages:
- Ensures that the pipeline’s flanged joints are made from low-grade materials;
- The lap joint flange can be rotated around the pipe to assist with bolt alignment.
There is no center hole in blind flanges, which are used to seal pipelines, valves, and pressure vessels and block fluid flow.
As a result of system pressure and bolting forces, blind flanges must endure significant mechanical stress. There must be a flange at least one inch thick, preferably thicker. The flange should not be in contact with the bolts. If this is impossible, the flange should have a radius or be shaped to avoid contact.
In addition to providing easy access to the pipeline, blind flanges can also be used in pressure vessels as utility holes since they can be unbolted to allow operations inside the pipe terminal end. Usually, blind flanges are bolted to plugs, which connect the flange and the pipeline. A blind flange seals with an O-ring or gasket around its circumference. It provides an airtight seal because the plug remains stationary as the channel rotates.
Types of special flanges
The Nipoflange is used for branch pipelines at 90 degrees and is made by combining a welding neck flange with a forged Nicolet. A Nipoflange is one solid piece of forged steel, unlike two products welded together.
The piping staff must weld the Nipolet part to the run pipe and bolt the flanged portion to the branched tube to install a Nipoflange.
There are several materials available for nickel flanges, including carbon steel forged flanges ASTM A105 (for high-temperature service), ASTM A350 (for low-temperature service), and ASTM A182 (for stainless steel grades, such as duplex and super duplex), and nickel alloys (Inconel, Incoloy, Hastelloy, etc.).
A reinforced Nipoflange offers more mechanical strength than a standard Nipoflange.
Nipoflanges combine a weld neck flange with a branch fitting (a Weldolet in this instance). A weld flange comprises a solid piece of forged steel, not of separate parts welded together.
Elboflange And Latroflange
Branching pipelines at 45 degrees is possible using elboflanges (combinations of a flange and an Elbolet).
The alignment of bolt holes between two mating flanges is greatly improved with swivel ring flanges, commonly used when installing large-diameter pipelines, subsea and offshore pipelines, pipeworks in shallow waters, and other similar environments. In the petrochemical and water management industries, swivel flanges can handle oil, gas, hydrocarbons, water, chemicals, and other demanding fluids.
A large-diameter pipeline, for example, is fitted with a welding neck flange at one end and a swivel flange at the other: the operators can align the bolt holes much easier and faster by simply rotating the swivel flange.
In petrochemical applications, ANSI/ASME B16.5 or ASME B16.47 are the most common standards for swivel ring flanges.
All standard shapes of common flanges, such as weld-necks, slip-ons, lap joints, socket welds, etc., are available in swivel flanges, along with a wide range of sizes and pressure ratings (from 3/8″ to 60″ and 150 to 2500).
carbon steel forged flanges (ASTM A105), alloy steel (ASTM A182 F1, A182 F5, A182 F9, A182 F91), and stainless steel (ASTM A182 F304, A182 F304L, A182 F316, A182 F316L).
Expanding Flange (“Expander”)
It is used to increase the bore of a pipeline or to connect pipes to other mechanical devices such as pumps, compressors, and valves with different sizes of inlets. The expanding flange in the picture represents a welding neck flange with a larger bore on the non-flanged end.
Run pipe bores can only be increased by one or two sizes with expanding flanges (for example, from 2 to 3 inches or a maximum of 4 inches).
Compared to a buttweld reducer and a standard flange (the standard solution for pipe bore increases above two sizes), expander flanges are cheaper (and lighter).
A105 (high-temperature carbon steel), A350 (LTCS), and ASTM A182 (stainless steel and above).
The ANSI/ASME B16.5 standard specifies the pressure ratings and dimensions of expanding flanges with raised or flat faces (RF, FF).
Reducing Flange (“Reducer”)
One or two sizes can safely reduce pipelines with reducer flanges (otherwise, a butt weld reducer with a standard flange must be used). Generally, lowering flanges are unavailable from stock in most sizes or material grades. The specifications, sizes, and material grades of reducing flanges are similar to those of expander flanges.
Lastly, a spectacle blind (or a ring spacer or spade) mechanically isolates pipes between them. More information on piping can be found in another section of our Wiki.
Pipeline orifice flanges measure fluid flow via a flow nozzle mounted on the flange itself. Pressure tappings are machined into the flange, eliminating the need for separate pipe tappings.
A spectacle blind is a simple safety device installed between two pipe flanges, and its open end serves as a spacer, allowing uninterrupted flow. It is rotated between the flanges when the flow needs to be stopped.
The Puddle Flange Jis 16k is used for sealing outside the pipes. Puddle Flange Jis 5k is suitable for applications where pipes pass through concrete structures. Puddle Flanges Class 300 are installed during construction. Since lines passing through concrete do not bond to the concrete, the Puddle Flange Class 600 is a barrier to this flow.
Equivalent class designation for forged fittings
- Class 3000 Forged Socket Weld Fittings for SCH 80 / XS Pipe
- Class 6000 Socket Weld Pipe Fittings for SCH 160 Pipe
- Class 9000 Forged Steel Fitting for SCH XXS Pipe
Fitting Wall Thickness in Forged Steel
Elbows 45 and 90 degrees,
Tees, Crosses, Couplings,
End or Pipe Caps
|½ – 4||½ – 2||½ – 2|
|½ – 4||½ – 2||½ – 2|
|½ – 4||½ – 2||½ – 2|
by Wall Thickness
|SCH 80 & XS||SCH 160||XXS|
Having a connection forged with FCI will eliminate certain aspects of the fabrication process in the shop. Using a reinforced pad can eliminate the need for cutting, drilling, laying out, forming, and tapping the weep holes associated with standard pads.
It is important to note that the fabrication of a Nozzle neck eliminates the need to inspect plate necks, cut and bevel the pipe, weld, form and lay out the line. As a result, there is no longer a need to weld and fit the flange to the pipe or forge a neck that is cylindrical during the component fabrication process. A reinforced pad installation does not require the welding of the pieces to the vessel’s shell or the inlet of the nozzle to complete the installation process.
Raw Material for Forged Flange
As the raw material for forged steel flanges is generally pipe billets, the nuggets are continuously hammered after they have been cut, after which they are continually hammered, thus eliminating defects such as segregation and looseness within the ingots.
Applications Of Forge Fittings
- Oil and Gas Pipeline
- Chemical Industry
- Water Supply Systems
- Paper & Pulp Industry
- General Purpose Applications
- Fabrication Industry
- Food Processing Industry
- Structural Pipe
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